Moreover, he declares that "they for many just reasons decided that this rule of faith should be called the Symbol", which Greek word he explains to mean both , that is to say an offering made up of separate contributions. 390), the letter addressed to Pope Siricius by the Council of Milan (Migne, P. let credit at least be given to the Symbol of the Apostles which the Roman Church always preserves and maintains inviolate." The word in this sense, standing alone, meets us first about the middle of the third century in the correspondence of St. Firmilia, the latter in particular speaking of the Creed as the "Symbol of the Trinity", and recognizing it as an integral part of the rite of baptism (Migne, P. It should be added, moreover, that Kattenbusch (II, p.L., XVI, 1213) supplies the earliest known instance of the combination ("Creed of the Apostles") in these striking words: "If you credit not the teachings of the priests . 80, note) believes that the same use of the words can be traced as far back as Tertullian.Among recent critics, some have assigned to the Creed an origin much later than the Apostolic Age.Harnack, e.g., asserts that in its present form it represents only the baptismal confession of the Church of Southern Gaul, dating at earliest from the second half of the fifth century (Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntniss, 1892, p. Strictly construed, the terms of this statement are accurate enough; though it seems probable that it was not in Gaul, but in Rome, that the Creed really assumed its final shape (see Burn in the "Journal of Theol. But the stress laid by Harnack on the lateness of our received text (T) is, to say the least, somewhat misleading.
However, beneath the myriad shades of moods, temperaments, whims and fancies that set them apart, there runs a common strand that joins the whole lot of women.In the middle ages torture was used to extract information, force confessions, punish suspects, frighten opponents, and satisfy personal hatred.Historically, ancient Greeks and Romans used torture for interrogation.The Norman French who came to England with William the Conqueror used torture to extract treasure from the Anglo-Saxons in their new kingdom.During the Anarchy, the Norman supporters of both of the claimants to the throne practiced torture to extract gold and silver from the peasantry.The word 'torture' comes from the French torture, originating in the Late Latin tortura and ultimately deriving the past participle of torquere meaning 'to twist'.