The present recommendations represent the consensus document of an international panel of experts appointed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), including clinical CV specialists with experience in exercise physiology, sports medicine, and clinical cardiology.
The present recommendations are based on published scientific evidence, when available, and on personal experience and consensus of experts.
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Hugo Saner, Inselspital, Kardiovaskulare Pravention & Rehabilitatiom, Schweizer Herz- und Gefasszentrum, Bern, Switzerland The rationale for offering an expert consensus document concerning the participation in competitive sports by individuals with cardiovascular (CV) disease is based on the widely accepted clinical perception, substantiated by scientific evidence, that athletes with underlying (even clinically silent) CV disease have an increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) or clinical deterioration in comparison with normal individuals, by virtue of their regular exercise training and sports participation.
Therefore, the aim of the present recommendations is to provide careful guidelines to physicians and consultant cardiologists regarding the evaluation of athletes with CV abnormalities and to suggest sports activities that can be safely performed.
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